The Creation and Validation of the Physical Educator Efficacy Scale for Teaching Lifetime Physical Activities
O'Neil, Kason, Education - Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Boyce, Barbara, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Due to the emphasis numerous national, state, and local organizations have placed on the promotion of lifetime physical activity in our school physical education programs, it is imperative that researchers continue to examine how lifetime physical activities are being taught in schools, and what teachers specifically think about their confidence towards instruction of these activities (AAHPERD 2103; Fairclough, Stratton, & Baldwin, 2002; NASPE 2007; 2008; 2009). As a result, a valid measure is needed to assess how teachers perceive their abilities to teach lifetime physical activities. Currently, there is no existing valid instrument that measures self-efficacy perceptions of physical educators towards the instruction of lifetime physical activities. To address the gap in the research, a new scale with strong evidence for validity and reliability is needed.
The purpose of this study was to develop and begin the validation process of an instrument that measures efficacy perceptions of physical educators towards teaching lifetime physical activities. This instrument, the Physical Educator Efficacy Scale for Teaching Lifetime Physical Activities (PEES-LPA), was developed through expert review and numerous pilot procedures based on Bandura’s Self Efficacy Theory (1977; 1982). The PEES-LPA was constructed and validated using the recommendations and guidelines presented in the previously mentioned literature, paired with Bandura’s Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales (2006), and DeVillis’s Scale Development: Theory and Practice (2012).
Following the establishment of content and construct validity through a focus group and expert review, 182 in-service secondary physical educators from the United States and Canada completed the resulting instrument, a 63-item survey. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a six factor model that accounted for 67.8% of the total observed score variance. Additionally, results revealed: (a) resulting factors showing simple structure that aligns with literature supporting the classification of lifetime physical activities (AAHPERD, 2013), (b) factors were composed of items that logically relate, and (c) internal consistency showed to be very high. In conclusion, the PEES-LPA appears to be an appropriate instrument for measuring self-efficacy perceptions of physical educators, though further revisions should be explored to help remove redundant items that may influence multicollinearity.
PHD (Doctor of Philosophy)
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