A mixed methods study on the intersection of contextual variables with teacher fidelity to the Scott Foresman Reading Program : influences on first grade reading achievement
Lawrence, Camille L., Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Deutsch, Nancy, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
McKenna, Michael, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Konold, Timothy, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Trent, Stanley, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia
Input and output models of policy implementation have failed to address the complexity of implementing policies. Prior studies reveal that policies are never equivalent across contexts. Instead, they are filtered as they travel from the macro-level to the micro-level of policy implementation. This understanding provides a framework for examining the complexity of implementing comprehensive reading programs. The mixed-methods study addressed this complexity by examining the extent to which reading endorsement status, teacher support and student SES influenced teachers' fidelity to the Scott Foresman program and reading outcomes. Five research questions were addressed: 1) To what extent are 1st grade students' reading achievement scores associated with teacher and classroom characteristics as well as fidelity to the Scott Foresman Reading Program? 2) To what extent is fidelity to the Scott Foresman Reading Program associated with teacher and classroom characteristics? 3) How and to what extent do 1st grade teachers' pre-existing pedagogical reading practices, knowledge, beliefs and worldviews influence how they utilize the Scott Foresman Reading Program (e.g. fidelity to script, use of materials, structure and lessons)? 4) How do first grade teachers make decisions on how to utilize the lessons, materials, script and structure of the Scott Foresman Reading Program? And 5) How do first grade teachers utilize the lessons, materials, script and structure of the Scott Foresman Reading Program to facilitate reading achievement? The study utilized hierarchical linear modeling, correlation and analytic induction. Data was collected on principals (n =4) first grade teachers (n = 11) and first grade students (n = 126) from a rural school district comprised primarily of African American students. The data included teacher surveys, student outcomes, classroom observations and interviews with teachers and principals. The HLM results revealed that teachers' reading endorsement status significantly influenced reading achievement (y03 = 4.51p = .07, a= .10, N2= .58). The correlation results did not indicate a significant association between fidelity and the contextual variables (p < .05). The qualitative findings revealed that all teachers used a hybrid approach. They integrated the reading program with Four Blocks, the needs and learning styles of their students, the state standards and their pedagogical reading knowledge. What differentiated the teachers was how they integrated theses components with Scott Foresman. Teachers with a reading endorsement used the program as a Complementary Resource by flexibly integrating the components. Teachers without a reading endorsement used the program as a Primary Resource by rigidly integrating the components. The findings reveal that the filtering process continues at the most micro-level of implementation. Furthermore, teachers with a reading endorsement have a repertoire of knowledge that allows them to implement the reading program in a way that was meaningful for their students. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings on the macro and micro implementation levels are discussed.
Note: Abstract extracted from PDF file via OCR.
PHD (Doctor of Philosophy)
All rights reserved (no additional license for public reuse)