Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC): Innovation and potential applications

Author: ORCID icon
Alzahrani, Abdualhadi Ahmed M, Environmental Sciences - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Virginia
Macko, Stephen, University of Virginia
Grise, Kevin, University of Virginia
Alrehaili, Omar, Civil Engineering Department, King Saud University

Our constant drive for economic growth is responsible for the degradation of the environment, poor air quality, and accelerated climate change. To mitigate carbon dioxide emissions from industrial emitters, one potential method is to use carbon capture and storage (CCS). Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC), one of the most promising CO2 separation technologies, achieves high rates of CO2 recovery and purity. This thesis discusses the various CCC methods that are currently under development, their advantages, and the obstacles that prevent their commercialization. The research evaluates the current state of technology, proposes recommendations for CCC deployment, acknowledges rival technologies, and concludes by outlining potential future directions for the CCC system.

A promising technology for lowering greenhouse gas emissions from industrial processes is cryogenic carbon capture. Using cryogenic temperatures, which are typically below -100°C, CO2 is captured from industrial gas streams using this process. The CO2 is then compressed and purified in preparation for use or storage. Compared to conventional solvent-based carbon capture, cryogenic carbon capture has several benefits, including greater efficiency and less energy usage. Additionally, cryogenic carbon capture has the potential to capture CO2 from flue gas streams that have high impurity concentrations and are challenging to capture with other technologies. Before it can be widely used, however, cryogenic carbon capture's high capital costs and technical difficulties must be overcome. Cryogenic carbon capture is a technology with a lot of potential for lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing the effects of climate change.

Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC) is a potential method for removing CO2 after combustion. This approach is relatively new compared to established practices, but it has significant technological and economic advantages. Despite its benefits, CCC is not yet commercially available, so a model-based design approach can provide valuable insights. The paper will begin by explaining the CCC process, followed by an extensive literature review that emphasizes various techniques for component-level modeling. The most efficient modeling methods for each system component are thoroughly presented. The authors suggest using the least complex modeling methods that are still able to accurately model specific CCC process components after comparing their complexity and accuracy levels. Additionally, possible directions for CCC process modeling and simulation study are discussed.

Depending on the specific application, the effectiveness of the technology, and the facility size, the precise removal rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) in gigatons of carbon (GtC) can change. Cryogenic carbon capture is thought to potentially remove CO2 from the atmosphere on a global scale of 1-2 GtC (0.5-1 ppm) annually. This estimate is based on the power plants' and industrial facilities' projected and actual global emissions, as well as the possibility that a significant portion of these emissions could be captured using cryogenic carbon capture.

MA (Master of Arts)
Carbon Capture and Storage, Climate Change, Cryogenic Carbon Capture
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