Pearling and the Language of Freedom: Navigating the Manumission System in the British Persian Gulf in the 1930s

Morse, Robyn, History - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Virginia
Bishara, Fahad Ahmad, History, University of Virginia

As international anti-slavery pressure on the British increased in the early 20th century, officials in the Persian Gulf began to manumit a growing number of enslaved persons. Enslaved pearl divers needed to physically approach the British in order to start their manumission application. In this process, their memories and history would be typically condensed into a one-page document. I argue that not just imperial archival methods influenced these statements, but the memory of British imperial experience with slavery influenced the ways in which they approached, understood, and targeted slavery in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. The manufactured English-language applications in the archive corresponded with British conceptions of slavery, but the interpretations of slavery placed on Persian Gulf communities didn't conform to local understandings of the institution. I demonstrate the process of translation, in which local realities of enslavement were transformed into British understandings of freedom. Finally, I examine how local pearl divers used the manumission system for themselves.

MA (Master of Arts)
Persian Gulf, Slavery, Pearling, Manumission, Mobility
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